1. Gale

    Thank you so much for this excellent, erudite, and well-illustrated article. The Orthodox Arts Journal is a wonderful publication. I really appreciate your efforts.

  2. I too as Gale appreciate this description. My question is not academic but technical. How is the cross/fan attached to the pole?

    1. On a wooden cross, the pole has a tennon which glues into a hole drilled into the cross. The ancient Byzantine crosses, whether iron or solid silver, would have a tang (tapered flat end-piece) that fits into a slot in the wood pole and affixed with a pair of through-rivets. This, incidentally, is exactly how a sword blade is installed in a wood handle, which further illustrates the connection with military implements.

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